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Being an avid stock market enthusiast, I knew that stock trading can be cherishingly profitable and can also be painfully unprofitable. Therefore, being a short-term trader, I was aware about the risk-return pool I am going to swim in. However, I ensured that none of my trades should be influenced by mere market rumors, and any long-short trade should be backed by a valid market information.
Financial reporting according to Pervan et al. (2010) is presenting all the relevant financial information of a business in a structured way for easy comprehension. A look at Tesco’s financial statements, there is a clear indication that that it is specifically aimed at impressing the shareholders(Tesco, 2012).
Unhealthy eating habits and unhealthy diets have become a subject of increased concern among many individuals in the society. This can be attributed to the increased health related issues such as heart diseases and poor dietary standards. With such concerns, many consumers have become keen on the type of foods they consume thereby leading to the growth of a niche market.
The involvement of the financial markets in the modern economies and the oil market is such that upwards of 60% of the crude prices are not determined by the supply and demand forces on the markets. Instead, leading hedge funds and banks, through the international oil exchanges in London and New York control the spot prices through oil futures (Rich, Streitfeld, & Rampell, 2011). This has effectively crested more scope for speculation within the industry, which when coupled with the emergency of bond markets across the world, the scare of the exchanges markets losing an actual backing of the actual markets has arisen, with dire consequences on the predictability of oil prices. These have an ultimate effect in the economies of countries across the world. This paper seeks to assess the effects of the international oil prices on the US’ domestic economy as well as the economies of other nations across the world. The assessment includes an understanding of the role of speculation, oil exchanges, producing nations and other agents of the fuel prices, as well as the effects of their respective decisions on the consumer demand (Rich, Streitfeld, & Rampell, 2011).
Bank History and Overview
The Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc. or the RBS refers to a holding company of one of the leading and largest financial services and banking groups (Datamonitor Report, 2011). Primarily, RBS operates in the United Kingdom, the United States (Citizens), Asia and other international markets through its main subsidiaries NatWest and Royal Bank. The RBS is headquartered in Edinburg Scotland with an employment base upwards of 150,000. Historically, RBS was founded in 1727 as a corporation by grant of a Royal Charter (Datamonitor Report, 2011). RBS expanded all over Scotland during the 19th century and by the 20th century; it had established its presence in several parts of England. It acquired several acquisitions such as Glyn Mills and Williams Deacons Bank through its strategic expansion in England. Equally, it amalgamated with the National Commercial Bank of Scotland, which had already diversified its networks and customer bases across the region (Datamonitor Report, 2011). During the 1970s, RBS expanded to other oversea finance and leasing markets such as Hong Kong and the US.
There has been unprecedented debate over economic policies with the advent of globalization marked by increased international labor mobility (Stilwell et al, 2004). But while in some economies, trade restrictions and protectionism has continued to hinder labor mobility, other economies are increasingly opening up their borders for international labor flow. This is a field of inquiry that has continued to attract attention of social scientist than many other aspects of globalization and world economy (Fanning and Munck, 2011). There has been substantial theoretical and empirical research on international migration of healthcare professionals in the last decade, a trend that has also invited multilateral financial institutions such as World Bank and international agencies like World Health Organization. The economic implications of healthcare professional mobility have thus; become fundamental public policy concern (Debisette, 2011).
The Rapid Development of International Micro-finance
One of the concepts of Finance that has continued to excel over the last two decades and to which numerous groups and institutions attribute their financial success in the various development projects is International Micro-finance. Though not so active, microfinance has been prevalent for centuries with savings and credit groups and numerous savings clubs all over the world offering financial services to the poor population that was often neglected by commercial banks. With the little profit that they made from these services, the various savings and credit developed further to form cooperatives and other development financial institutions such as micro credit organizations which provided small loans mainly to the poor people in the rural areas who could not meet the high collateral requirements of the existing commercial banks.
INTRODUCTION TO THE LITERATURE
The McKinnon and Shaw publication of what was dubbed “Financial Repression” in 1973, triggered off a global scholarly debate over financial liberalization and the widespread policy implications among governments in the developed world, and perhaps even most crucially for the developed countries. The lifting of restrictions on the global capital transactions did result into multiple growth and efficiency opportunities for the United Kingdom, opportunities that however, been tempered by the widespread financial instabilities that have destabilized global economies, with a growing magnitude.
Liberalization in general can be defined as the act in which something is made less strict. Financial Liberalization therefore refers to the reduction in any type of regulations in the financial industry of any given country (Hermes & Lensink, 2005). It is the lessening of restrictions on different types of the lending instruments which can be traded and lending institutions.
Planning for the old age has been one of the worries of most individuals, more especially the employed. One of the elements of this planning is the pension. Generally, pension is an arrangement to provide individuals with earnings at the time when the have ceased getting regular employment income. It serves the same purpose as severance pay, but while pensions are paid in regular installments, severance pay is paid in lump sum. Pension awarded following retirement is commonly known as a retirement plan, (Ginn, 2003).