The competition between Google Android and Apple iOSis one of the most talked after wars in mobile gadget platforms. The Google Android platform is increasingly becoming dominant in the smartphones and tablets market. Nokia, a once leading company in the mobile phone market is slowly entering the smartphone market with a new range of Lumia smartphones powered by Windows 8 mobile as it phases out its range of Symbian powered smartphones. Equally, Motorola Mobility is trying to gain a share of the market by increasing its product portfolio of smartphones in the Droid family. The Android Operating System powers the Droid range of smartphones. Samsung is by far the largest mobile manufacturing company in the world with a full range of Android powered smartphones in the Galaxy family. The recent entry of the Samsung Galaxy SIII heightened the competitive advantage of the Android Software Platform based on the Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich) software. With HTC,Blackberry OS, and Microsoft Mobile as a distant competitors, the war is clearly not between mobile phone manufacturers but the war is between software manufacturers, and in this case,Apple iOS and Google Android (Katie, 2012).
Currently, the competition between Apple iOS and Google Android is so close such that it becomes difficult to tell the superior operating system (Ian, 2011). Undeniably, each mobile platform has its strengths and weaknesses.
Advantages of Android OS over Apple iOS
Devices running the Android Operating System are versatile such that the UI (User Interface) enables users to multitask functions and multiple purposes. The versatility enables users to perform two functions at a time without having to close other applications. On the contrary, the Apple iOS allows users to execute one function at a time and exit running applications when they need to open another application. The Android second advantage is that the Google Android OS supports several Social Integration and Google functionalities and apps such as Google Play, Gmail, Google Maps, G-talk, YouTube, and Google Plus. The Apple iOS is limited to selected social integration and functionalities from the iTunes store. Third, users can access a variety of third-party applications without stringent rules and restrictions compared to the Apple iOS. Lastly, the Android OS runs on any android supported device because of its low system requirements and it does not require the installation of additional drivers(Ian, 2011).
The Java programming language in programming applications for android devices is very popular with many a software developer. Majority of programmers are proficient with the Java programming language thereby preferring devices ran on Java supported platforms. The Apple iOS, on the other hand, uses the Objective-C language programming language, which is less preferred among software developers based on the level of complexity. Second, the Open Handset Alliance in collaboration with Google have made the Android Operating System is an open source software that uses third-party tools to develop applications. When compared to Android OS, developers have no liberty to use third-party tools when developing applications for devices running on the Apple iOS because developers have to adhere to restrictive developer guidelines that specify the type of tools. It is argued that these restrictions limits the creative and innovative abilities of software developers.Speaking of software testing platform, an indexed set of software tools is available to android users to enhance their software testing abilities. This set of indexed tools is superior to the Xcode testing tool availed to Apple iOS developers.
Disadvantages of Android OS over iOS
The wide range of Android Software versions such as Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Froyo, and Éclair among others are confusing to many a client. The rate of software version is so frequent such that clients can only anticipate for future versions. For instance, the Ice Cream Sandwich is less than 3 months old but the Jelly Bean is replacing it. Worse still, software upgrades are not applicable to all versions. Apple iOS is superior in this category. Concerning multitasking abilities,Android supported devices often hang up due to large system memory requirements to run multiple applications thereby reducing the overall speed of the device. Applications on iOS devices load faster as compared to Android platform.
Multiple usability leads to the creation of complex applications that increases the difficulty to consumers and developers as compared to developers using the Apple iOSand its stable platform.There are few crashes while using the Apple iOS in addition to faster loading time for applications. Lastly, there are higher risks when using the android platform due to attacks and threats because of the open platform.
Two decades ago, any issue relating to web standards was mainly a purview of computer scientists, enterprise technologists, and engineers. Currently, the concept of web standards is everybody’s business and this is in part due to the sheer number of standards that the web fraternity have had to comply over the past few decades. Web Standards refers to rules and regulations that guide the process of making it easier for files to be read by any person irrespective of his/her location on the globe. Web standards influence the administration and development of websites in terms of usability, accessibility, and interoperability of web pages. With web standards, it is possible for content authors and users in the web to communicate with each other irrespective of the device used to experience the webpage. By adhering to the web standards, users and developers can derive benefits such as easier development and maintenance that translate into cost savings and minimize the reinvention of web-based programs (Kane, and Hegarty, 2007).
According to Aghaei, Mohammad, and Farsani, (2012), web standards involve universally conventional practices that delineate the criteria with which websites are developed. For this reason, technical and non-proprietary standards are followed when defining the aspects of the World Wide Web. Examples of web technologies and standards that have developed since the inception of the World Wide Web include Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web, 3.0, and Web 4.0.The W3C Consortium uses specific tools, software, and specifications to create and maintain such standards.
Web 1.0 Standard
Web 1.0 standard is popularly known as the web of cognition and it is the first web standard that provided individuals with the avenue for broadcasting information to users. It was a read-only standard such that information could only be searched and users could not make interactions (Hsu, and Par, 2011).
Web 2.0 Standard
Defined by Dale Dougherty in 2004, this standard provided an improvement to the Web 1.0 standard because it is powered by the read-and-write technological platform. The web 2.0 platform is characterized by information sharing capabilities, interoperability, and interactions among users on the internet (Fifarek, 2007). It favored social interactions because of the capability to manage high volumes of information. Such power enabled it to attract more users due to expanded application capabilities and network effects. Aghaei, Mohammad, and Farsani (2012) states that this web platform provided increased controls as compared to its predecessor web 1.0.
Web 3.0 Standard
Reed Technology and Information Services designed this technology to enable users to access customizable web publishing and technological solutions. The web 3.0 technology was aimed at enabling to publish magazines on the web alongside with their archived and latest information. This standard enables users to organizing large volumes and as well define structural data based lines that allows effective automation, integration, discovery, and re-use of information in different platforms (Aghaei, Mohammad, and Farsani, 2012).Other characteristics of the web 3.0 technology include the presence of navigational tools, full-text search capabilities, hyperlinked text, simple search-result pages, and online features such as discussion groups and forums.
Advancement in technologies have provided a wide range of tools and new opportunities that enable organizations to personalize their operating environments. For instance, virtualization and cloud computing have received increasing support all over the world due to the need of meeting the rapidly changing economic needs and service delivery (Marks, E. & Lozano, B. 2010). With cloud computing, organizations can minimize on information technology costs while at the same time enabling the organization to attain higher flexibility in security maintenance, compliance, and reliability (Thomas 2010). Cloud computing involves the use of computer technologies such as hardware and software programs to deliver computing services over a network. Examples of cloud computing services include storage services, desktop services, security services, and IT services.The management of business operations has evolved to a situation whereby incorporation of multi-products and multi-channel strategies is the most vital aspect of market success.
Benefits of cloud computing
Internet based computing the sharing of resources and information from one computer to the other within the organization (Marks & Lozano, 2010). This has provided the shift from the mainframe form of operation to the client-server based management systems of managing business operations. Second, cloud computing helps users to store personal files in remote “cloud” locations as compared to the traditional process of storing files in computer hardware drives. Third, cloud computing enables organizations to access a wide range of services that include web based email services, internet communication tools, customer relationship management, and file storage services. Information sharing across clouds enables employees to work together on documents and work projects irrespective of their location.
Account setting and usability provided they have access to the internet thereby increasing chances of sharing and accessing company information. Another benefit associated with cloud computing is the flexibility of conducting business operations and as such, many an employee within the business organization are capable of accessing files from several remote locations provide he/she has access to the files (Miller, 2008). Closely related to the aspect of flexibility are the increased options of accessing stored files and these options include smartphones, tablets, and other devices that can connect to the internet.Organizations that use cloud computing can save on hiring costs and other costs related to HR.
Cloud computing does require technological expertise because users utilize software and hardware programs that are already installed in computers. Additionally, many applications based on the cloud computing easier and less complex in addition to costing less. Finally yet important, cloud-computing offers increased security to organizations such that worries associated with computer attacks and malwares over networks are eliminated. IT leaders within organizations will have reduced responsibilities of running technological processes of their businesses by directing their focus to effective and efficient utilization of technology. Speaking of financial related issues, financial risks can be projected to reduce and this has direct implications on maintaining minimal sunk capital costs in situations where the idea fails to materialize (Miller, 2008). With the increased advancement in technology, there is no doubt that cloud-computing will be increasingly used by businesses.
4 (1): Computer security
There is no doubt that the weakest link in computer security does not lie in the nature of the technology but rather the weakest link lies in the individuals utilizing the technology. The case of Mary provides an ideal situation where users fall into the tricks used by hackers to access private and confidential information. It happens in part due to ignorance and negligence and in part due to distractions that inhibit individuals from paying attention to detail. Lack of the security prevention measures in basic information technology can enable hackers to use the simplest technologically engineered tricks to hack in personal accounts. From the conversation between Mary and the hacker, Mary failed to pay attention to detail or interrogate the caller regarding identity matters before providing sensitive information. Technologies are built with password protected or encrypted technologies to ensure that users information is safe. However, it is up to users to protect this information. Equally, organizations need to educate their employees on issues regarding the security of their accounts on the network. Additionally, the organization should ensure that it informs employees on the right authorities to contact in case of network breakdown and this includes details of the network service providers, in order to prevent cases of hacking.
4(2.1): Alternative login mechanisms
Other than password protected login mechanisms into computer networks and systems, advancement in technology have led to the development of more secure mechanisms. For instance, the implementation of biometric systems will enable individuals to log in to their accounts after the computer systems authenticates the login attempt using specific personal attributes. However, this mechanism requires the use of additional software or hardware mechanisms to assist in scanning individual attributes that facilitate the login attempts. Graphical illustrations and images among other types of non-text passwords can be used as alternative means of login into personal accounts.Such methods can help in minimizing cases of account hacking.