This report looks at mergers and acquisitions globally and considers why so many fail. Despite this scenario, management decision-makers still continue to look for opportunities. This study researches both successful and unsuccessful mergers and acquisitions in order to determine the reasons for both successes and failures. Perhaps, historically mergers have occurred between companies that are similar in size and also have similar interests , yet acquisitions tend to facilitate larger organizations and companies acquiring smaller businesses. It is now common for mergers and acquisitions to be enacted across borders, often providing solutions for corporates to extend their influence from national into international markets. However, despite the financial expertize available to ascertain the viability of such business transactions, many of these business ventures fail, or at best do not perform according to expectation; reflected in adversely affected share prices. This report seeks to understand the motivating factors behind the continuing drive by many boards of directors to pursue this type of business transaction, and how this trend of failures can be reversed.
The involvement of the financial markets in the modern economies and the oil market is such that upwards of 60% of the crude prices are not determined by the supply and demand forces on the markets. Instead, leading hedge funds and banks, through the international oil exchanges in London and New York control the spot prices through oil futures (Rich, Streitfeld, & Rampell, 2011). This has effectively crested more scope for speculation within the industry, which when coupled with the emergency of bond markets across the world, the scare of the exchanges markets losing an actual backing of the actual markets has arisen, with dire consequences on the predictability of oil prices. These have an ultimate effect in the economies of countries across the world. This paper seeks to assess the effects of the international oil prices on the US’ domestic economy as well as the economies of other nations across the world. The assessment includes an understanding of the role of speculation, oil exchanges, producing nations and other agents of the fuel prices, as well as the effects of their respective decisions on the consumer demand (Rich, Streitfeld, & Rampell, 2011).
Table of Content
1.0 Executive Summary 3
2.0 Introduction 4
3.0 Environmental Analysis and Audit 4
3.1 PESTEL Analysis 4
3.2 SWOT Analysis 5
3.3 Competition Analysis – Porter’s Five Forces 6
3.4 Product Offering 8
3.5 Product Life Cycle 9
5.0 Marketing Strategy 9
5.1 Mission 10
5.2 Marketing Objectives 10
5.3 Target Markets 10
5.4 Positioning 10
5.5 Segmentation 11
5.6 Ansoff Matrix 11
5.7 BCG Matrix 11
5.8 Distribution Strategy 13
5.9 Marketing Mix 13
6.0 Financial Analysis 15
7.0 Implementation Controls 16
8.0 Corporate Social Responsibility 16
9.0 Contingency Plan 17
10.0 Recommendations 17
In applying for this fellowship in cardiology, I am reminded of the expression we had on our unit that if you want to see how valuable a minute is, look at a man who missed a train, but we say go the chest pain unit. I will always remember that first day when as that day when my cardiology fellow got a pager from the ER physician that there was a patient with STEMI. He literally ran down the stairs because there was no time to use the elevator, ran in to the ER seeing the patient, checking the EKG and calling the attending physician all at the same time. He was not the only one who had that response, but rather everyone did, including the nurses, technicians, and transport staff. They all kept in mind that time is muscle and did their best to send the patient to the catheterization unit within fifteen minutes.
Portfolio optimization is a mathematical model that is applied in the process of investment decision-making across a set of assets or financial instruments. This model was invented by Prof. Harry Markowitz in the 1950s. While developing this model, Markowitz was trying to solve the following problem: Given a fixed collection of assets, determine the portfolio that combines the assets using an optimal fixed percentage asset allocation given the risk preferences of an individual investor (Prigent 2007). Portfolio optimization is based on a number of assumptions, including the investment will be for a single period of time, asset prices display a jointly distributed lognormal random walks, unconstrained asset allocation, and the objective is to capitalize on the predictable utility of wealth at the end of period. Portfolio optimization can be undertaken using various techniques but the most common include quadratic programming, mixed integer programming, as well as nonlinear programming. In addition to being applied as an investment decision-making tool, portfolio optimization is also used in divestment and capital allocation decisions (Wachowicz and Horne, 2008).
Social responsibility is an idea that has been of concern to mankind for many years. Over the last two decades, however, it has become of increasing concern to the business world. This has resulted in growing interaction between governments, businesses and society as a whole. In the past, businesses primarily concerned themselves with the economic results of their decisions. “Today, however, businesses must also reflect on the legal, ethical, moral and social consequences of their decisions” (Anderson 15). This paper will discuss the concept of corporate social responsibility. It will give the definition of the phrase, and identify some of the global factors that necessitate corporate social responsibility. It will discuss the importance of corporations setting up corporate social responsibility projects, and the impact these have on society. Social corporate responsibility and the maintenance of high ethical standards is not an option but an obligation for all business.
Bank History and Overview
The Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc. or the RBS refers to a holding company of one of the leading and largest financial services and banking groups (Datamonitor Report, 2011). Primarily, RBS operates in the United Kingdom, the United States (Citizens), Asia and other international markets through its main subsidiaries NatWest and Royal Bank. The RBS is headquartered in Edinburg Scotland with an employment base upwards of 150,000. Historically, RBS was founded in 1727 as a corporation by grant of a Royal Charter (Datamonitor Report, 2011). RBS expanded all over Scotland during the 19th century and by the 20th century; it had established its presence in several parts of England. It acquired several acquisitions such as Glyn Mills and Williams Deacons Bank through its strategic expansion in England. Equally, it amalgamated with the National Commercial Bank of Scotland, which had already diversified its networks and customer bases across the region (Datamonitor Report, 2011). During the 1970s, RBS expanded to other oversea finance and leasing markets such as Hong Kong and the US.
Arguably, logistics in the recent year has tremendously changed, with the adoption and growth of transport management systems, GPS, Warehouse management systems, GIS, as well as supply chain management. As a matter of fact, operations are the pillar of any organization, whether non-profit industries, marketing or manufacturing services.
There has been unprecedented debate over economic policies with the advent of globalization marked by increased international labor mobility (Stilwell et al, 2004). But while in some economies, trade restrictions and protectionism has continued to hinder labor mobility, other economies are increasingly opening up their borders for international labor flow. This is a field of inquiry that has continued to attract attention of social scientist than many other aspects of globalization and world economy (Fanning and Munck, 2011). There has been substantial theoretical and empirical research on international migration of healthcare professionals in the last decade, a trend that has also invited multilateral financial institutions such as World Bank and international agencies like World Health Organization. The economic implications of healthcare professional mobility have thus; become fundamental public policy concern (Debisette, 2011).
According to Spielvogel, Leonardo da Vinci was one of the greatest Italian Renaissance artists, which was once explained that a painter will create paintings of small merit if he shall use the work of other as a stand; but if he will study from natural objects, he shall bear good fruit, especially for those who shall use nature as their standard.